The heart which is a major part of the human body

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The heart which is major part of human body

The heart introduction

The heart is a conical, hollow fibro muscular organ situated in the middle mediastinum. It is covered by pericardium.

Short description of heart

(A) Shape-conical
(B) Location-middle mediastinum

(C) Measurement-

  1. length-about 12 cm
  2. width-about 9 cm



  1. male-about 300 gm
  2. female-about 250 gm


(E) Presenting parts

  1. Apex
  2. Base
  3. Three surfaces
    (a) anterior surface
    (b) inferior surface
    (c) left surface

  4. Four borders
    (a) upper border
    (b) inferior border
    (c) right border
    (d) left border

  5.  chambers of heart
    (a) Right atrium
    (b) Left atrium
    (c) Right ventricle
    (d) Left ventricle
  6. Four valves
    (a) Bicuspid or mitral
    (b) valve
    (c) Tricuspid valve
    (d) Aortic valve
    (e) Pulmonary valve
  7. Three layers
    (a) Epicardium
    (c) Endocardium

(F) Artery supply-
Right coronary artery and it bnanches
Left coronary artery and it bnanches

(G) Venous drainage
Coronary sinus
Anterior cardiac vein
Venae cordic minimi

(H) Nerve supply
Sympathetic-from t3 to t5 segments of spinal cord
Parasympathetic -by vagus


The pericardium is a fibroserious sac which encloses the hart and the roots of the great vessels.
Layers of pericardium-

  • Fibrous pericardium (outer)
  • Serous pericardium (Inner)


Artery supply of pericardium-
Fibrous and parietal layer-

  • Internal thoracic aorta
  • Descending thoracic aorta


Visceral layer-

  • Coronary artery


Nerve supply-

  • Fibrous and parietal layer-phrenic nerve
  • Visceral layer- vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve



  • Give protecton to heart from external injury
  • Allow to heart to move without friction
  • Maintain the position of heart

Conducting system of the heart

It has the following pars-

  • Sinuatrial node (SA node)
  • Atrioventricular node(AV node)
  • Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle or bundle of his)
  • Right and left branch of AV bundle
  • The purkinje fibers

Function of valve

  • Unidrection flow of blood
  • Prevent the regungitation of blood
  • Production heart sound

Superior vena cava

Superior vena cava is a large Venous channel which collects blood from upper half of the body and drains into the right atrium


  • Length-about 7 cm
  • Width-about 2 cm


  • By the union of right and left brachiocephalic vein.


  • Collection of blood from upper half of the body
  • Drainage of blood into the right atrium

The aorta

The aorta is the great arterial trunk which receives oxygenated blood from left ventricle and distributed it to all part of body.


  • Ascending aorta
  • Arch of aorta
  • Descending aorta


  • Receives oxygenated blood from left ventricle
  • Distributes blood to all parts of body

NB: please comment, how was my content about heart


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